Cover image for AIDS update 2014 : an annual overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome / Gerald J. Stine.
AIDS update 2014 : an annual overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome / Gerald J. Stine.
AIDS update 2014 : an annual overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome / Gerald J. Stine.
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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome update 2014
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New York, New York : McGraw-Hill, 2014.
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Bibliography Note:
Includes bibliographical references (pages 506-546) and index.
About the author -- AIDS update 2014 -- Thirty three years of HIV/AIDS and counting: a humanitarian crisis -- Preface -- Introduction: Histories of global pandemics, AIDS, its place in history, overview of HIV/AIDS, international AIDS conferences, and means of remembering, the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day -- How much do you really know about HIV/AIDS? -- Three words echo around the world: AIDS crisis worsens! -- History of global pandemics and epidemics -- Fear, ignorance, and condemnation: who is to blame? -- Image a world without AIDS -- Overview of HIV/AIDS -- HIV/AIDS: a unique disease -- HIV/AIDS: a cause of death -- Another anniversary -- Other anniversaries -- International AIDS conferences -- Means of remembering: uncommon threads -- 29th Candlelight Memorial -- Walking to change the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: United States -- Bicycle riding and other social events to change the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: United States -- AIDS Olympics -- World AIDS Day: an international day of coordinated action: a time to recharge and reconnect -- Future -- National AIDS hotlines -- Useful Internet addresses -- International statistics -- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) -- AIDS: Defining The Disease And Finding Its Cause: -- New Millennium -- AIDS: a disease or a syndrome? -- First reaction to AIDS: denial -- What causes AIDS? -- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports -- Discovery of what causes AIDS -- Defining the illness: AIDS and surveillance -- Summary -- Review questions -- What Causes AIDS: Origin Of The AIDS Virus: -- Cause of AIDS: the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) -- HIV does not cause AIDS: dissidents and their cults: a minority point of view -- News flash 2010: Leading HIV/AIDS dissident cleared of misconduct following complaints made after he and others published a 2009 paper arguing that there is "as yet no proof that HIV causes AIDS -- Dissidents' websites (AIDS doesn't exist or HIV isn't the cause) -- Summary of HIV/AIDS dissidents' viewpoints -- Evidence that HIV causes AIDS -- Origin of HIV: the AIDS virus -- Summary on the origin of HIV -- Summary -- Review questions -- Biological Characteristics Of HIV: -- Viruses need a host cell in order to replicate -- Viruses are parasites -- Viruses specific to cell type -- What are CD4 cells -- How do human T4 or CD4+ Lymphocytes relate to HIV infection and AIDS? -- Description of HIV; how it attach's to a host cell and buds out of the cell -- HIV fitness -- HIV life cycle -- Understanding how HIV works -- How HIV escapes the infected cell -- Distinct genotypes (subtypes/clades) of HIV-1 worldwide based on ENV and GAG proteins -- Unless specified, the information on HIV in this book relates only to HIV-1 group M -- Summary -- Review questions -- Anti-HIV Therapy: -- Better drugs, better technologies, and lingering problems -- Antiretroviral Therapy or ART -- Good news about Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) -- Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) drugs with FDA approval -- HIV medicine chest: ART drugs receiving FDA approval -- Use of non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors -- FDA-approved protease inhibitors -- Entry inhibitors and problems -- Integrase inhibitors -- Development and selection of HIV drug-resistant mutants -- Development of HIV drug resistance to protease inhibitors -- How combination or combined drug therapy can reduce the chance of HIV drug resistance -- Viral load: its relationship to HIV disease and AIDS -- Medical complications associated with Antiretroviral Therapies (ART) -- Summary -- Caution -- Disclaimer -- Some HIV/AIDS therapy information hotlines -- Review questions -- Immunology Of HIV Disease/AIDS: -- Immune system -- Human lymphocytes: T cells and B cells -- Why CD4+ cells are important in HIV infection: what it means -- CD4+ cell count: why it matters -- Antibodies and HIV disease -- HIV eradication currently not possible because of infection of latent resting CD4+ cells and immunologic memory cells -- Immune system dysfunction -- Original antigenic sin -- Search for additional receptors (coreceptors) to CD4: fusion or CXCKR-4 (R-4) -- CCKR-5 (R-5) receptor -- Emergence of HIV strains that vary in their lethal abilities -- In search of genetic resistance to HIV infection -- T4 cell depletion and immune suppression -- Impact of T4 cell depletion -- Role of monocytes and macrophages in HIV infection -- Where do T4 or CD4+ cells become HIV infected? -- Summary -- Review questions -- Opportunistic Infections And Cancers Associated With HIV Disease/AIDS: -- What is an opportunistic disease? -- Prevalence of opportunistic diseases -- Opportunistic infections in HIV-infected people -- TB: the leading cause of death among HIV-positive people worldwide -- Cancer or malignancy in HIV/AIDS patients -- Disclaimer -- Summary -- Review questions -- Profile Of Biological Indicators For HIV Disease, Progression To AIDS, And Hope: -- Prediction -- What is known and what is missing from our understanding of HIV/AIDs: the new crisis -- HIV disease defined -- Stages of HIV disease (without drug therapy) -- HIV disease without symptoms, with symptoms, and AIDS -- Production of HIV-specific antibodies -- Prognostic biological markers (biomarkers) related to AIDs progression -- HIV infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS) -- Neuropathies (nerve tissue damage) in HIV disease/AIDS patients -- Finally, a renewed hope for the future of those who are HIV infected -- Summary -- Review questions -- Epidemiology And Transmission Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: -- Epidemic/epidemiology -- We must stop HIV transmission now! But how -- Epidemiology of HIV infection -- Transmission of two strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2) -- Ten most common fears in the USA associated with HIV transmission: 10 being the least and 1 being the most feared -- Is HIV transmitted by insects? -- HIV transmission -- HIV transmission in family/household settings -- Non-casual transmission -- Gay men putting themselves at high risk for HIV infection -- Biological factor -- CDC HIV transmission risk, June 2012 -- Injection-drug users and HIV transmission -- United States: heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU) -- Injection-drug use and HIV infections in other countries -- Other means of HIV transmission -- Influence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on HIV transmission and vice versa -- Pediatric transmission -- National AIDS resources -- Summary -- Challenge your assumptions about the HIV infected -- Review questions --

Preventing The Transmission Of HIV: -- AIDS generation: I knew everything about it, and I still got it! -- Prevention, not treatment, is the least expensive an most effective way to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS however, when faced with discrimination, stigma, alienation, and marginalization, people will not disclose their risk factors, use condoms, get tested for HIV, seek treatment, or talk openly about HIV/AIDS -- Primary goal of prevention -- Global prevention -- Antiretroviral drugs have an impact on prevention, but we can't treat our way out of this pandemic -- Advancing HIV prevention: new strategies for a changing epidemic -- Preventing the transmission of HIV -- Sexual risk taking depends on sexual activity -- New rules to an old game: promoting safer sex: nobody has a body to die for! -- Male condom -- Female condom or Femidom (vaginal pouch) -- Alternative to condoms: vaginal microbicides (Mi-cro-ba-cides) and circumcision (Cir-cum-ci-sion) -- CAPRISA 004 study results -- Circumcision and the prevention of HIV transmission -- Injection-Drug Use (IDU) and HIV transmission: the twin epidemics -- HIV prevention for injection-drug users -- Prevention of blood and blood product HIV transmission -- Infection control procedures -- Sexual partner notification: disclosure -- US Federal Government has now adopted partner notification as its cornerstone in its effort to help control the spread of HIV -- Vaccines -- First human vaccine: the impact of vaccines on infectious diseases -- Journey toward and HIV/AIDS vaccine now in its 31 year (1983-2014) -- HIV vaccine development and its role in prevention -- How these two neutralizing antibodies work -- Types of experimental HIV vaccines -- DNA vaccine -- Problems in the search for HIV vaccine -- September 2009: news broken that a partially effective HIV vaccine was found! -- Summary -- Five ways you can help prevent HIV/AIDS -- Review questions -- Prevalence Of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, And Deaths Among Select Groups In The United States And In Other Countries: -- Word about HIV/AIDS data -- Year 2014 -- Formula for estimating HIV infections -- Behavioral risk groups and statistical evaluation -- Aging with HIV/AIDS: the hidden side of this crisis in the United States -- September 18: Annual National HIV/AIDS Aging Awareness Day -- Estimates of AIDS cases and HIV infection -- Shape of the HIV pandemic: United States -- Estimates of deaths and years of potential life lost due to AIDS in the United States -- Selected nations/countries have different epidemics, each faces its own reality -- Fast facts -- Canada's estimated HIV/AIDS cases through 2013: population about 34,310,000 -- Mexico's estimated HIV/AIDS cases through 2013: population about 115 million -- United Kingdom's (UK) estimated HIV/AIDS data through 2013: population about 63 million -- Global prevalence and impact of HIV/AIDS -- Connected but separate: each country a different reality, different countries, similar questions, but different answers, different epidemics -- Workforce-South Africa: some examples -- Education: teachers and students-South Africa and some countries in Southern Africa -- Other HIV/AIDS time bombs in Asia: India, China, and Russia -- Summary -- CDC releases atlas tool to map, chart US HIV/AIDS surveillance data (January 2012) -- Review questions -- Prevalence Of HIV Infection And AIDS Cases Among Women And Children: -- Women and HIV/AIDS -- HIV/AIDS is defining the lives of many millions of women -- Female vulnerability to HIV -- Every day a tragedy -- Triple jeopardy -- Annual International Women's Day: March 8 -- Women: AIDS and HIV infections worldwide -- Asia-Pacific Region, over six million HIV positive -- Women: HIV-positive and AIDS cases: United States -- Childbearing women: worldwide -- Internet resources -- Pediatric HIV-positive and AIDS cases: United States: a fight we can win! -- Orphaned children due to HIV infection and AIDS -- Phenomenon of AIDS orphans -- Update 2013 on American Women and breastfeeding: American Academy of Pediatrics -- Summary -- Review questions -- Prevalence Of HIV Infection And AIDS Among Young Adults, Ages 13 To 24: -- Global HIV infections in young adults addressing the AIDs pandemic among young adults: know-protect-talk -- How large is the young adult population in the United States? -- HIV/AIDS wont' affect us! -- Estimate of HIV-infected and AIDS cases among young adults in the United States globally -- When will routine testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection be the routine for adolescents/young adults? -- Summary -- Internet -- Other useful sources -- Review questions -- Testing For Human Immunodeficiency Virus: -- Determining the presence of antibody produced when HIV is present -- Requests for HIV testing -- Reasons for HIV testing: I know, I took the test -- Laboratory methods for detecting HIV -- ELISA HIV antibody test -- Western blot assay -- New ELISA antibody antigen and RNA detection procedures reveal early versus late HIV infection -- Rapid test results for HIV testing -- FDA approves home-collection HIV antibody test kit -- Some screening and confirmatory antigen-detection test for HIV -- Deciding who should get an HIV test and when -- Why is HIV test information necessary? -- Immigration and travel ban into the United States is lifted -- Testing, privacy, competency, and informed consent -- Summary -- Review questions -- AIDS And Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behavior: -- HIV/AIDS is a story in our lifetime -- New millennium and HIV/AIDS -- HIV/AIDS is an unusual social disease -- Discrimination and stigma versus compassion and support -- HIV/AIDS is here to stay -- AIDS comes to the United States -- Blame someone, Deja vu fear: panic and hysteria over the spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States -- Whom is the general public to believe? -- AIDS education and behavior: dissipating fear with education -- Character of society -- Dealing with discrimination: the Americans with Disabilities Act -- Update -- Federal and private sector financing: creation of an AIDS industry -- US Government believes HIV/AIDS is a threat to national security -- Global HIV/AIDS funding for underdeveloped nations -- Unspent global funds? -- Forms of US monetary assistance for HIV/AIDS -- Summary -- Review questions -- Answers to review questions -- Glossary -- Glossary -- References -- Index.

About the author -- AIDS update 2014 -- Thirty two years of HIV/AIDS and counting : a humanitarian crisis -- Preface -- Introduction : histories of global pandemics, AIDS, its place in history, overview of HIV/AIDS, international AIDS conferences, and means of remembering - the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day -- AIDS : defining the disease and finding its cause -- What causes AIDS : Origin of the AIDS virus -- Biological characteristics of HIV -- Anti-HIV therapy -- The immunology of HIV disease/AIDS -- Opportunistic infections and cancers associated with HIV disease/AIDS -- A profile of biological indicators for HIV disease, progression to AIDS, and hope -- Epidemiology and transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus -- Preventing the transmission of HIV -- Prevalence of HIV infections, AIDS cases, and deaths among select groups in the United States and in other countries -- Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS cases among women and children -- Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS among young adults, ages 13 to 24 -- Testing for human immunodeficiency virus -- AIDS and society : knowledge, attitudes, and behavior -- Answers to review questions -- Glossary.
AIDS Update 2014 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS Update 2014 places this discussion within a biological, medical, and social framework. Unique to this textbook is the historical presentation of HIV/AIDS in terms of dates, times, and locations, as well as the meaning of those events in scientific, political, and social terms. - Publisher.
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